Synopsis IAS Geology Optional

Geology Optional

Geology Optional for IAS, IFS and NET JRF

Rs. 6999 for 2023, Rs. 7999 for 2024, Rs. 8999 for 2025 Only

About Course

What is Geology Optional for UPSC by Synopsis IAS?

The Geology Optional for UPSC IAS, IFS (Indian Forest Services), GSI and NET JRF is designed by Krishna Sir, who is the content developer and main faculty for this course.

Course includes: Geology Optional Book Summaries. All the Standard Book Summaries are uploaded one by one. Content is created in lines with Geology UPSC Previous 40 Years Solved Papers. Model answers are made by combining topics from IAS and IFS Syllabus.

No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.

You can solve 54/56 questions in Paper 1 and Paper 2 in UPSC CSE 2021 Mains from Previous Year Papers.

You can solve 52/56 questions in Paper 1 and Paper 2 in UPSC IFS 2021 Mains from Previous Year Papers.

All these questions can be solved if you have followed Synopsis IAS, because Synopsis IAS make content from Previous Year Papers + Syllabus.

Strategy Videos by Krishna Sir: Previous Year Questions for Geology Optional UPSC is discussed in detailed manner, in which the strategy for Answer Writing in Geology Optional is covered. You will be able to self-evaluate the answers after going through these videos.

You will learn to apply paper 1 concepts in Paper 2; use tables, charts, examples etc.; and implement other important aspects of Geology in your answers.

Discussion Videos for Previous Year Questions for Geology Optional.

Our Approach: Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key! It is a well-established fact that at least 90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers.

Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus + Previous Year Question Papers.

A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the questions from 1979 to 2021 IFS are updated, along with standard book summaries.

Course Differentiator!

How is this course different from similar courses by other coachings?

Other coachings provide too much content and the content that they provide is very unorganised and not according to the UPSC Syllabus. Other coachings overburden their students with unnecessary garbage which is hard to read even once, so just think how and when the students will revise it?

Organising the content needs 2 Things:

  1. UPSC Syllabus: This will tell you what all topics you need to keep your notes within.
  2. Previous Year Questions: This will tell you the exact topics and even exact questions many times of what will be asked in UPSC. You yourself can predict what UPSC will ask in exam with the help of previous year questions.

We have organised our Previous year Questions in such a way that it is easier to find and predict the weightage of each unit, each topic and even repetitiveness of the paper. Each unit has been organised Topic wise and it took years of research to get through this.

Mostly students do not even know which coaching to join, which books to follow for each section, which sir or ma'am will teach better and how did we fail in Optionals? Even after purchasing some coaching's material, students search for which books to follow to make notes along with coaching. Then why did the students join coaching in the first place when they could not be provided with one stop solution? Coaching is supposed to save our time, and not waste it.

But let us tell you that there are no poor students. Students just need the right approach to crack this exam. 

We advise you to not believe us blindly and look for previous year questions yourself and you will see how UPSC is repeating 90% of its questions every year. You just need to revise and practice those solutions of question papers and those topics again and again.

We proudly claim that our toppers have followed this approach and cracked the exam very easily. Some have even cracked it in first attempt.

Please don't fall in the trap of coaching wallas claiming every year UPSC asks new things or you need to study every other thing or join random test series.

At Synopsis IAS, we provide to the point and Synoptic Content.

No other Study Material / Book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer newspapers, standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the content with current affairs regularly. After making content for any topic, we also refer to the other major institutes notes to ensure that we don't miss any important point or topic.

Still, the content is available in approx 1/3rd pages as compared to the other institutes.

Krishna sir is the content head at Synopsis IAS. The course content is thoroughly reviewed by him. He has gained 7+ years of experience in Research and Development while in services at DAE, GOI.


We do not waste unnecessary time in selling coupons for courses, marketing, and promotions. The faculties just teach, teach and teach, and do not beat around the bush. The lecture duration is short – If other institute has covered the same topic in 1 hour, we cover that just in approx. 15-20 minutes.


We teach in easy Hinglish language. The content slides for the course are in Hinglish (One line English, One line Hindi).

The course is available in English and Hindi Mediums. The Study Material is in Three Languages: First file is in English, Second file is in Hindi, Third file is Bilingual (one line English, one line Hindi). The Lectures are delivered in Hinglish.


When it comes to guidance, noone can even come closer to Synopsis IAS. The Synopsis IAS institute is based on the vision of a person, who left services just to teach and provide genuine Guidance.

There are Strategy Videos by Krishna Sir: He has discussed the strategy to prepare for UPSC in cover in a realistic way in his most popular Guidance Series.


The course is available for a very less price compared to any other online or offline coaching.

General Details

Lectures: There are pre recorded lectures by the highly qualified and experienced faculties.

Advanced lectures: These include applied part and in depth-learning for all major topics.

Study material: Course study material will be available for registered students in downloadable and printable PDF format on the student dashboard. 

Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password. You can watch the lectures anywhere, anytime and any number of times.

Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.

It is a Paid Batch for UPSC CSE aspirants. However, a number of videos are uploaded at YouTube for Demo and Awareness purpose.

Course Completion Date: 1 month before exam

Validity: One month after exam.

Answer Writing Practice: There are extensive answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of the Classroom course. Evaluation is available for test series students.

Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.

Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required. Offline centre Support at Delhi.

Course Content/Syllabus

Following subjects are covered:

Following subjects are covered:

Italic topics are IFS only topics.

Paper 1 Section A

1. General Geology: The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Radioactivity; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts,​ Seismic zones of India, intensity and magnitude,​​ Seismographs​; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts- evidence and mechanism; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy; Orogeny and epeirogeny, Continents and oceans.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Mass wasting​; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) - its applications.

3. Structural Geology: Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Superposed deformation​; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation; Introduction to petrofabrics.

Paper 1 Section B

4. Paleontology: Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies.

Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea.

5. Indian Stratigraphy: Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology: Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Ground-water chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting.

Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.


Paper 2 Section A

1. Mineralogy: Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Crystal defects; Elements of X-ray crystallography. ​Petrological microscope and accessories;

Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.

Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems; Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentation and assimilation; Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages, Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

3. Sedimentary Petrology: Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance; Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.

Paper 2 Section B

4. Economic Geology: Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminum, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

5. Mining Geology: Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining- metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Trace elements; Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, landslides, costal hazards, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash; Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection - legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.


This course is recorded by the highly qualified and experienced faculties.

Enroll Now

Buy Now for Rs. 6999 for 2023, Rs. 7999 for 2024, Rs. 8999 for 2025 Only