Forestry Optional for IFS and NET JRF
What is Forestry Optional for UPSC by Synopsis IAS?
The Forestry Optional for UPSC IAS and NET JRF is designed by Krishna Sir, who is the content developer for this course.
Course includes: Forestry Optional Previous 40 Years Papers Solutions. Forestry Optional Book Summaries. All the Standard Book Summaries are uploaded one by one.
No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.
You can solve 24/28 questions in Paper 1, and 25/28 questions in Paper 2 in UPSC 2021 Mains from Previous Year Papers.
You can solve 52/56 questions in UPSC 2022 Mains from Previous Year Papers.
All these questions can be solved if you have followed Synopsis IAS, because Synopsis IAS make content from Previous Year Papers + Syllabus.
Our Approach: Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key! It is a well-established fact that at least 80-90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers. Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus Plus Previous Year Question Papers.
A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the UPSC Optional Subjects Online Coaching Courses are divided into two Levels
Other coachings provide too much content and the content that they provide is very unorganised and not according to the UPSC Syllabus. Other coachings overburden their students with unnecessary garbage which is hard to read even once, so just think how and when the students will revise it?
Organising the content needs 2 Things:
We have organised our Previous year Questions in such a way that it is easier to find and predict the weightage of each unit, each topic and even repetitiveness of the paper. Each unit has been organised Topic wise and it took years of research to get through this.
Mostly students do not even know which coaching to join, which books to follow for each section, which sir or ma'am will teach better and how did we fail in Optionals? Even after purchasing some coaching's material, students search for which books to follow to make notes along with coaching. Then why did the students join coaching in the first place when they could not be provided with one stop solution? Coaching is supposed to save our time, and not waste it.
But let us tell you that there are no poor students. Students just need the right approach to crack this exam.
We advise you to not believe us blindly and look for previous year questions yourself and you will see how UPSC is repeating 90% of its questions every year. You just need to revise and practice those solutions of question papers and those topics again and again.
We proudly claim that our toppers have followed this approach and cracked the exam very easily. Some have even cracked it in first attempt.
Please don't fall in the trap of coaching wallas claiming every year UPSC asks new things or you need to study every other thing or join random test series.
At Synopsis IAS, we provide to the point and Synoptic Content.
No other Study Material / Book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer newspapers, standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the content with current affairs regularly. After making content for any topic, we also refer to the other major institutes notes to ensure that we don't miss any important point or topic.
Still, the content is available in approx 1/3rd pages as compared to the other institutes.
Krishna sir is the content head at Synopsis IAS. The course content is thoroughly reviewed by him. He has gained 7+ years of experience in Research and Development while in services at DAE, GOI.
We do not waste unnecessary time in selling coupons for courses, marketing, and promotions. The faculties just teach, teach and teach, and do not beat around the bush. The lecture duration is short – If other institute has covered the same topic in 1 hour, we cover that just in approx. 15-20 minutes.
MEDIUM OF COURSE
We teach in easy Hinglish language. The content slides for the course are in Hinglish (One line English, One line Hindi).
The course is available in English and Hindi Mediums. The Study Material is in Three Languages: First file is in English, Second file is in Hindi, Third file is Bilingual (one line English, one line Hindi). The Lectures are delivered in Hinglish.
When it comes to guidance, noone can even come closer to Synopsis IAS. The Synopsis IAS institute is based on the vision of a person, who left services just to teach and provide genuine Guidance.
There are Strategy Videos by Krishna Sir: He has discussed the strategy to prepare for UPSC in cover in a realistic way in his most popular Guidance Series.
The course is available for a very less price compared to any other online or offline coaching.
Lectures: There are pre recorded lectures by the highly qualified and experienced faculties.
Advanced lectures: These include applied part and in depth-learning for all major topics.
Study material: Course study material will be available for registered students in downloadable and printable PDF format on the student dashboard.
Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password. You can watch the lectures anywhere, anytime and any number of times.
Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.
It is a Paid Batch for UPSC CSE aspirants. However, a number of videos are uploaded at YouTube for Demo and Awareness purpose.
Course Completion Date: 1 month before exam
Validity: One month after exam.
Answer Writing Practice: There are extensive answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of the Classroom course. Evaluation is available for test series students.
Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.
Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required. Offline centre Support at Delhi.
Following subjects are covered:
Paper 1 has total eight units: (1) Silviculture - General (2) Silviculture - Systems (3) Silviculture - Mangrove and Cold desert (4) Silviculture of trees (5) Agroforestry (6) Forest Soils, (7) Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity (8) Tree Improvement and Seed Technology.
Paper 1 has total eight units: (1) Forest Management (2) Forest Working Plan (3) Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing (4) Surveying and Forest Engineering (5) Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany (6) Forest Resources and Utilization (7) Forest Protection & wildlife Biology (8) Forest Economics and Legislation.
Paper I – Section A
1. Silviculture - General
General Silvicultural Principles: Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques nursery beds, poly-bags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.
2. Silviculture - Systems
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems, Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding, thinning.
3. Silviculture - Mangrove and Cold desert
Mangrove: Habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters. Cold desert- Characteristics, identification and management of species.
4. Silviculture of trees
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifokia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp, Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacrdium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa,Tamarindus indica.
Paper 1 – Section B
1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology
Agroforestry - Scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and eco-system preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and (v) Providing opportunities for enhancing biodiversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agroecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry: Objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM - Principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribology: Tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, Principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.
2. Forest Soils, soil Conservation and Watershed Management
Forests Soils: Classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
Soil conservation - definition, causes for erosion; types–wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of micro-organisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management - Concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
3. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity
Environment : Components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Pollution: Types, Global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental impact Assessment, Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.
Paper 2 – Section A
5. Forest Management and Management Systems: Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure. (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
6. Forest Working Plan: Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
7. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing: Methods of measuring - diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, current annual increment; mean annual increment, Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.
8. Surveying and Forest Engineering: Forest surveying - different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and Bridges, General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
Paper 2 – Section B
5. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany: Forest Ecology: Biotic and abiotic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest ecosystems. Clonal parks. Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani - Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their chemical constituents.
6. Forest Resources and Utilization: Environmentally sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation systems, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) - definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.
Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood manufacture - properties, uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle boards-manufacture; properties, uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India and future expansion plans.
Pulp - paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities. Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification - general principles.
7. Forest Protection & wildlife Biology: Injuries to forest - abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters.
Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachment, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.
8. Forest Economics and Legislation: Forest economics: Fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analysis of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation - History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement of women; Forestry policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, sustainable forest management; industrialisation policies; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest Inventory.
This course is recorded by the highly qualified and experienced faculties.